Colour removal using nanoparticles
© Kale and Kane. 2016
Received: 29 December 2015
Accepted: 14 March 2016
Published: 31 March 2016
Nickel nanoparticles were synthesized and used to decolourize dye effluent. C. I. Reactive Blue 21 was taken as a reference dye, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a stabilizer to prevent agglomeration of nanoparticles. Characterization of nanoparticles was done by a laser light scattering particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various parameters like pH, dye concentration, nanoparticle concentration, alkali addition, salt addition and duration studied for dye decolourization. To confirm the attachment of degraded products of dye on the nanoparticles, FT-IR analysis was done. About 98 % colour removal with simultaneous reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved.
The effluent discharged from textile dyeing mill is a highly concentrated coloured wastewater and consists of a mixture of various dyes. Most dyestuffs are complex aromatic structures which are difficult to be disposed. Moreover, the colour in water resources poses aesthetic problem. They also cause serious ecological problems like significantly affecting photosynthetic activity of aquatic plants due to reduced light penetration and may be toxic to some aquatic organism (Zollinger, 1987).
Many methods used for dye removal include chemical coagulation, flocculation, chemical oxidation, photochemical degradation, membrane filtration and aerobic and anaerobic biological degradation. These methods have one or other limitations, and none of them is successful in complete removal of dye from wastewater (Dizge et al., 2008).
Metal nanoparticles are also employed for decolourization of the coloured effluent. The size and shape of the nanoparticles play an important role in the decolourization and can be controlled by various physical and chemical routes. These particles show tendency to aggregate and thus lower the activity. Hence, to prevent the aggregation irreversibly, researchers have coated the particles with low molecular weight polymeric compounds (Hergt et al., 2006; Naoki 2008; Sakulchaicharoen et al., 2010; Shen et al., 1999). However, the need for the non-agglomerated nanoparticles with a well-controlled mean size and a narrow size distribution is not yet achieved.
Tagar et al., (2012) have carried out reduction of dyes by using gelatine stabilized gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Nanoscale nickel particles (NiNPs) were used for decolourization of Congo red dye by Kalwar et al. (2013). Nickel oxide has also been used for oxidation of a wide range of organic compounds (Lai et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2008; Nateghi et al., 2012, Kalwar et al., 2014). In a study conducted by Saadatjou et al. (2008), 80 % decolourization of dye basic red 46 was achieved using hardened pieces of Portland white cement as adsorbent. In a research conducted by Asgari and Ghanizade (2009), methylene blue dye could be completely decolourized after 2 h treatment time using 1 g/L bone ash. Song et al. (2009) carried out decolourization of reactive dye using nickel oxide nano-sheets at acidic pH after 6 h.
Among all the magnetic metallic nanomaterials, nickel nanostructure materials are difficult to synthesize because they are easily oxidizable. Ball milling, electrodeposition, thermal plasma, polyol process, chemical vapour deposition (CVD), decomposition of organic-metallic precursors, chemical reduction in the liquid phase and many other methods (Degen and Macek, 1999; de Caro and Bradley, 1997; Steigerwald et al. 1988; Yurij et al., 1999; Zhang, et al., 2006) have been applied to obtain pure metallic nickel nanoparticles. Chemical reduction of cations from the solution of metal salts using strong reducing agents is the best way to prepare nickel nanostructure materials.
Phthalocyanine reactive dyes are metallic complexes; mostly copper based gives turquoise colour shade. They are potentially mutagenic and have special toxicity concern because of metal Cu content. These dyes are not easily dischargeable and also have resistance towards oxidative degradation, which makes its decolourization a difficult task. They are highly water-soluble, shows resistance to adsorption and non-biodegradable under aerobic conditions resulting in permanent coloured effluent (Mathews et al., 2009).
Souza et al. (2007) have achieved 59 % decolourization of Reactive Blue 21 (RB21) dye using horseradish peroxidise as oxidizer. Degradation of dye RB21 using soybean peroxidase as biocatalyst was evaluated by Marchis et al. (2011), and they achieved approximately 95–96 % decolourization at pH 3.0 with 4 h treatment time.
In this current work, the problem of agglomeration of nanoparticles has been successfully approached. The colour removal of the dye solution was carried out by using chemically synthesized disperse nickel nanoparticles in a non-aqueous solution using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizer. The various parameters such as time, nanoparticle concentration, initial RB21 dye concentration and pH were studied. Addition to colour removal, the effect of presence of salt and alkali in the dye solution and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction was also investigated.
C. I. Reactive Blue 21 was purchased from Colourtex Industries Limited, Mumbai. Nickel chloride (NiCl2.6H2O, ≥ 98 %), hydrazine hydrate (N2H4.H2O molecular weight 50.06), acetone (molecular weight 58.08, 99 %), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K-30), sodium hydroxide (NaOH, molecular weight 40), acetic acid, ethanol (99.7 %), chloroform, methanol, soda ash and Glauber’s salt were supplied by S D Fine-Chem Limited (SDFCL, Mumbai).
Synthesis of Ni-PVP nanoparticles
Characterization of nanoparticles
The size and morphology of the nanoparticles was estimated using transmission electron microscope (TEM) (Model CM 200, Philips) operated at an accelerating voltage of 200 kV. The mean diameter of the prepared Ni-PVP nanoparticles was determined using a laser light scattering particle size analyzer (SALD 7500 nano, Shimadzu, Japan). Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) was recorded on Simadzu XRD-6100.
Batch decolourization studies
The presence of degradation products on the nanoparticles was identified using FT-IR 8400S (CE), Shimadzu, Japan.
COD was measured using USEPA-approved dichromate COD method using Hach DRB digester and analysis with DR 900 colorimeter, USA.
Results and discussion
Effect of initial dye concentration
The rest of the dye decolourization study was performed using 1.5 g/L nanoparticle by taking 100 mg/L of the dye for 120 min.
Effect of pH
Effect of alkali
Reactive dyeing requires salt and alkali for good exhaustion of dye onto substrate. The effect of decolourization using nanoparticle was thus studied in the presence of salt and alkali.
Twenty grams per litre of soda ash was added in the dye solution which increased the pH of solution to 11.3. The pH was brought down to the value of 7 by addition of acetic acid, and then % decolourization study was done.
Effect of salt and alkali
Dye reduction results reported in this study were based on the spectrophotometric analysis of the dye solutions. But the spectrophotometric evaluation cannot be interrelated to reduction of COD as we wanted to know the effect of presence of nanoparticles on COD value of dye effluent (Golder et al., 2005). COD value for treated effluent was 61 ppm while the same for untreated one was 125 ppm. It can be inferred that Ni-PVP nanoparticles not only eliminates the colour from the effluent but also reduces the COD indicating degradation of the dye.
PVP stabilized nickel nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and used for decolourization of recalcitrant dye effluent. These nanoparticles gave decolourization efficiency of 98.97 % at optimized condition. Decolourization also led to the reduction in COD of the effluent. Both of these were achieved with minimum generation of sludge which is a major problem in case of conventional methods which are used for decolourization such as coagulation and flocculation.
The authors would like to acknowledge DST-FIST programme of Indian government for providing the testing facilities and University Grants Commission (UGC) for fellowship in successful completion of this research work.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Bokare, AD, Chikate, RC, Rode, CV, Paknikar, KM, (2008). Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 79 , 270–278Google Scholar
- de Caro, D, & Bradley, JS. (1997). Langmuir, 13, 3067–3069Google Scholar
- Degen, A, & Macek, J. (1999). Nanostructured Materials, 12, 225–228Google Scholar
- Dizge, N, Aydiner, C, Demirbas, E, Kobya, M, Kara, S. (2008). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 150, 737–746Google Scholar
- Gao, J, Guan, F, Zhao, Y, Yang, W, Ma, Y, Lu, X, Hou, J, Kang J. (2001). Materials Chemical and Physics, 71, 215Google Scholar
- Ghanizadeh, GH, & Asgari, G. (2009). Iranian Journal of Health and Environment, 2, 104–13Google Scholar
- Golder, AK, Hridaya, N, Samanta, AN, Ray, S. (2005). Journal of Hazardous Materials B, 127, 134–140Google Scholar
- Hergt, R, Dutz, S, Mülle, R, Zeisberger, M. (2006), Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 18, S2919Google Scholar
- Kale, RD, Kane, P, Phulaware N. (2014) International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology, 3(2), 109–117Google Scholar
- Kalwar, NH, Sirajuddin, Hallam KR. et al. (2013). Applied Catalysis A, 453, 54–59Google Scholar
- Kalwar, NH, Sirajuddin, Soomro, RA, Sherazi, STH, Hallam, KR, Khaskheli, AR. (2014). Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient nickel nanocatalysts and their use indegradation of organic dyes. International Journal of Metals, 20, 10-14.Google Scholar
- Lai, TL, Wang, WF, Shu, YY, Liu, YT, Wang, CB. (2007). Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 273, 303–9Google Scholar
- Marchis, T, Avetta, P, Bianco-Prevot, A, Fabbri, D, Viscardi, G, Laurenti, E. (2011). Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 105 , 321–327Google Scholar
- Mathews, RD, Bottomley, LASG, Pavlostathis, P. (2009). Desalination, 248, 816–825Google Scholar
- Mu, Y, Yu, HQ, Zhang, SJ, Zheng, JC. (2004). Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 79, 1429–1431Google Scholar
- Naoki, T. (2008). Macromol. Symp., 270, 27–39Google Scholar
- Nateghi R, Bonyadinejad GR, Amin MM, Mohammadi H. (2012). Decolorization of synthetic wastewaters by nickel oxide nanoparticle. International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering, 1(1), DOI:10.4103/2277-9183.98384.
- Nath, S, Praharaj, S, Panigrahi, S, Basu, S, Pal, T. (2007). Current Science, 92(6), 786–790Google Scholar
- Saadatjou, N, Rasoulifard, MH, Heidari, A. (2008).Journal of Color Science and Technology, 2, 221–6Google Scholar
- Sakulchaicharoen, NA, O'Carroll, DMA, Herrera, JEB. (2010), Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 118(3–4), 117–127Google Scholar
- Shen, L, Laibinis, PE, Hatton, TA. (1999). Langmuir, 15, 447Google Scholar
- Song, Z, Chen, L, Huand, J, Richards, R. (2009). Nanotechnology, 9, 2–10Google Scholar
- Souza, SMAGU, Forgiarini, E, Souza, AAU. (2007). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 147, 1073–1078Google Scholar
- Steigerwald, ML, Alivisatos, AP, Gibson, JM, Harris, TD, Kortan, R, Muller, A.J, Thayer, AM, Duncan, TM, Douglass, DC, Brus, LE. (1988) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 110, 3046–3050Google Scholar
- Sulekh, C, Kumar, A, Tomar, PK. (2014). Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 18, 437–442Google Scholar
- Tagar, ZA, Sirajuddin, Memon N. et al. (2012). Pakistan Journal of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, 13(1), 70Google Scholar
- Wang, HC, Chang, SH, Hung, PC, Hwang, JF, Chang, MB. (2008). Chemosphere, 71, 388–97Google Scholar
- Yurij, K, Asuncion, F, Cristina, RT, Juan, C, Pilar, P, Ruslan, P, Aharon, G. (1999). Chemistry of Materials, 11, 1331–1335Google Scholar
- Zhang, HT, Wu, G, Chen, XH, Qiu, XG. (2006) Materials Research Bulletin, 41, 495–501Google Scholar
- Zollinger, H. (1987). Colour chemistry-synthesis, properties and application of organic dyes and pigments. NewYork: VCH.Google Scholar